Dating american waltham pocket watches
These 'clock-watches' were fastened to clothing or worn on a chain around the neck.
They were heavy drum shaped brass cylinders several inches in diameter, engraved and ornamented. The face was not covered with glass, but usually had a hinged brass cover, often decoratively pierced with grillwork so the time could be read without opening.
This type of escapement involved a high degree of friction and did not include any kind of jewelling to protect the contacting surfaces from wear.
Still later in the century there was a trend for unusually shaped watches, and clock-watches shaped like books, animals, fruit, stars, flowers, insects, crosses, and even skulls (Death's head watches) were made.This fob could also provide a protective flap over their face and crystal.Women's watches were normally of this form, with a watch fob that was more decorative than protective.Also common are fasteners designed to be put through a buttonhole and worn in a jacket or waistcoat, this sort being frequently associated with and named after train conductors.An early reference to the pocket watch is in a letter in November 1462 from the Italian clockmaker Bartholomew Manfredi to the Marchese di Mantova Federico Gonzaga, where he offers him a "pocket clock" better than that belonging to the Duke of Modena.
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(Surviving examples mostly run very fast, often gaining an hour a day or more.) The first widely used improvement was the cylinder escapement, developed by the Abbé de Hautefeuille early in the 18th century and applied by the English maker George Graham.